|The town on Arkarka was named Tara.
|December 12, 2009.|
It is still unknown what the history of our region would be without this northern city.
Taking into account the whole Trans-Urals, Tara is the 3rd age city after Tyumen and Tobolsk. Taking into account Siberian federal district that does not include the Tyumen Region, Tara is the oldest city in Siberia.
At the highest ground.
Kuchum, the conqueror of the Middle Pre-Irtysh, contributed to Tara foundation. Having extinguished the tribal leaders noblemen of the local Tatar population, he proclaimed himself the Head of Siberian khanate, voluntarily became the part of Ruthenia in 1555. Moscow, considering Kuchum and Tatar citizens’ confrontation their internal matters, did not interfere in affairs till Kuchum paid tribute. Kuchum days were numbered soon after he refused to pay tribute in furs and then began to ruin the nearest Russian cities. The Yermak troop defeated Kuchum in fast moving battles. To tell the truth, they missed out khan himself that eventually cost Yermak’s life.
In spite of the Yermak loss the Russian direct rule was asserted quickly in Siberia because the local population took Russians as liberators. Cossack and Siberian Tatar interservice teams made military raids against Kuchum people. The former khan had nothing but run partizan war, making attacks on the quite. Having tired of his invasions, Tatar citizens, living along the banks of river Tara asked Russian authority to protect them. And Czar issued a degree to found the fortress on the river Tara to protect local population from Kuchum invasions.
However, Prince Andrey Elecky being in charge of 1500 Tatar and Russian troop in spite of the degree to put it on Tara outflow, decided to found the fortress 20 miles below along the Irtysh, near the small river Arkarka. It is believed that commander did not like the low banks of the Irtysh in designated place. This is the wildly spread version. But there is one more. Tara and Irtysh had been the thruway of Siberia for centuries. Merchant caravens and military formations passed through the rivers. If the fortress was founded on Tara outflow or above it would be opened for invasions from the both sides. The soldiers of the overturned khan were wandering near Tara and the troop of steppe inhabitants were attacking from Irtysh side. Having found the fortress below, the danger was only from steppe side. Now it was easier to conduct reconnaissance and Russian lands protected from the North.
The place below Irtysh was chosen very carefully. What the place near Arkarka was notable for? For its inapproachability. The height protected from all of the sides by natural barriers: Irtysh bottom-land, taiga rivers, bogs and lowlands. Although the fortress was founded on Arkarka river, it was called Tara. Just to be safe and not attract attention of Moscow nobility. How will believe in it?
Protectress of Siberia.
The prince fenced himself off the enemy troops but did not beware of the local Tatars.
There are still alive memories of their predecessors campaigns comprised of Russian troops against Kuchum and inhabitants of steppe regions in some Tatar villages of Tatar region. Commander Andrey Voieykov inflicted the last defeat on Kuchum at the end of the summer in 1598. Russians and Tatars went shoulder to shoulder again. Having lost his Central Asian wanderers’ troop, the khan managed to avoid captivity for the second time. Where he died is still unknown.
Kuchum’s descendants had different destinies. Some of his sons, having sworn allegiance to the Czar, served their new Motherland honourably. Others, vice-versa, continued to keep up the ball of the father and kept Siberians on the run for some more decades. They robbed Russian and Tatar villagers, conspired with Dzungars steppe to raid to Tobolsk and Tara.
Before Omsk has been found rare year passed in the world. However, we have forgotten about it quickly and would not recollect long while, if Alexey Matveev, the Omsk historian did not carry out the careful investigation of a historiography of the conflicts.
During restless times the wisdom of Tara’s founder was especially evident. Tara had a strong military reservation successfully beating off the enemies and holding the region under protection. According to registration documents of XVII century, in 1631 there were only 287 soldiers. There were no more than one thousand soldiers both in Dzugars troop and Kuchum troop.
So it has turned out that Russian came to Siberia easily, but kept difficultly. And Tara had been the main southern boundary fortress for long years.
Today Tara is a nice taiga city. The city of unique ancient wear plates, white snow and modern building design. The city of students and lots of theaters. Tara had competed with Tobolsk for all the times and fairly conceded to it before recent years. And now there was a sensation of parity.
The depth of occupation layer
The archeologist shovel has disturbed Tara for the 1st time.
Despite the fact that Tara is the oldest city of the Siberian federal district, the archeologists have never investigated it till this year. Sergey Tataurov, the director of archeology of Omsk filial branch archeology and ethnography Institute of Siberian department of Russian Academy of Sciences, became the first professional scientist who managed to look in depth of the occupation layer of this ancient city.
The 1st purpose of his researches was the stone foundations of Tara Temples, destroyed in Soviet times. From six stone Orthodox churches survived only one – Spasskaya. Therefore there was enough space for search. Sergey Philippovich has found all the foundations of demolished Temples and not only Orthodox. He also found the location of the one stone mosque in the city. According to the scientist, Tara had luck to preserve the foundations because the Temples did not blow up as in Omsk.
There were not so much Temples in Tara, but how wonderful they were! For example, the huge Cathedral of the Assumption which was considered to be nearly the highest building in Siberia. Nikolskyaya church has twelve domes. You will not find so many domes somewhere else in Russia.
The 2nd purpose of Tataurov’s researches was Tatar Kremlin investigation. It was situated in the centre of the city, now there is a monument to Vladimir Ilich. The archeologist managed to find the fortification traces. The bottom crowns of the fortification combined from trunks of a larch survived in depth of soil.
The 3rd purpose was the search of places of executions of “public enemies” that were carried out in the thirties. There have been several of them. The scientist has established one of them – the open cast of the old brick-works. Remains of people lie in layers. As far as the grave site is constantly plowed for potato plants, the fertile layer became thinner and the bones closer to the surface. They have already begun to plow out.
Life has presented to the scientist two unexpected surprises. He has come across road humps, the dirt of XVII century, where townspeople threw off garbage and waste. It turned out to be a rich storehouse of findings. The 2nd surprise was the opening of the shoe workshop of pre-Petrine times. The leather has remained perfectly well. Now Sergey Philippovich has the possibility to get to the Guinness Book of Records. He has the largest collection of ancient footwear.