|Life after Omsk foundation.|
July 27, 2009.
Buchholz had intensive life even after the foundation of our city. Many Omsk citizens think nothing happened in Buchholz life after his landing on the shore of the Irtysh and Omsk foundation as a result.
But in his life happened a lot. He was not such kind of person to have quiet life.
His life was not easy at all. Soon after the fortress foundation he suffered much and only due to his patience he managed to endure it for several years. From 1717 to 1723 he did not know what happen the next day. Life did not have mercy on him, there were ups and downs. Soon after Buchholz campaign, he took part in not very honourable affair looking now, heir Aleksey trial, Peter the Great son. Then he reported about his Asian campaign along the river Irtysh to the Senate. All this time he had been on remand. He had been justified but did not have any important affairs any more. In 1751 he turned fifty, he could retire and moreover he had an estate. It would seem, have tea with a pie and birds’ singing in the morning and be happy, but he importuned for service.
At last everything was arranged. He settled up his affairs and became a military man. Ivan Dmitrievich got the commandant rank of Narva fortress, near St. Petersburg. In 1724 he was transferred to Transbaikalia, Eastern Siberia and got the Colonel rank. Then he became the commandant of Yakut regiment formed by him.
It's hard to tell why he, aged man, from Narva was sent to Eastern outskirts, into lonely place. Maybe he did not please somebody or said offensive words. He had rustic character judging by his biography. He never had to search for words, had nothing with intrigues and lick-spittling. It is obvious he left Narva for far Siberia not thirsting for travelling. And his Colonel rank was not a reward for him, it was given to him just to gild the pill.
Life in the outskirts.
Buchholz exile for Omsk citizens was the reason to be proud of their founder. The rank of the Narva commandant is honourable but here in the East of our country in the 1st quarter of XVIII he had more opportunities. Here far from the capitals in slightly settled area the person was rewarded by his merits.
Only honest and strong people could stay here. Here they have minimum dependence and maximum possibilities. Of course there were quite enough deceivers but they were not an obstacle to career development, just another opportunity to show the recognition to the Czar. Weak people would not survive here.
It was safe to say that Buchholz endured. He built the border point on Russian-Chinese borderline, Kyakhta, soon grew into the famous merchant city. Kyakhta was built only ten-twelve years later than Omsk. The place for Kyakhta, chosen together with the earl Vladislavich-Raguzinsky, was directed toward the negotiations on identification of the Russian-Chinese boundary. The colonel was the one responsible for the construction work, made by soldiers of his regiment at first. Tea, sugar, textile were imported to Russia and fur and metal were exported through Kyahta. Since 1728 Colonel Buchholz, the commandant of Yakut regiment, took the position of The General Head of Boundary Control. He was responsible for the permission of boundary disputes and the boundary arrangement. Now when the boundary trade was under his control he had a great opportunity to enrich himself, besides he lived in public apartment with his wife and a daughter.
In 1731 he got the foreman rank. Simultaneously he was appointed the commandant of Selenginsk fortress. It was not far from the modern Russian-Mongolian boundary. In XVIII the current Mongolian territory was a part of the Chinese Empire.
Nine years later, upon the petition of Siberian Vice-governor Lang, Buchholz was forced to resign because of bad health, “too old and has scelalgia”. By tradition, before the retirement he was appointed the Major general.
Soon afterwards he “took well-deserved rest” and in 1741 Ivan Dmitrievich passed away.
The search continued.
Here the mysteries began. The exact date and burial place have not been determined yet. Where his body lies remains unknown too. It could be in his family estate, European part of Russia. In Omsk, the city that he founded. Or in Selenginsk cemetery.
Ivan Petrov is the Omsk famous regional ethnographer and writer judging by journalists’ reports supposed that Ivan Dmitrievich body lies behind Lenin Monument toward the Musical theatre, where the Ilinski church was. Ivan Shikhatov is another famous regional ethnographer argued against , taking into account the fact that Buchholz was Lutheran and could not be buried within the Orthodox Church.
Most researches including Shikhatov think that most likely Ivan Dmitrievich is buried in Selenginsk cemetery.
To find out the cemetery seemed to be a piece of cake, just make little effort. You go to Selenginsk cemetery, find a flag-leaf with Buchholz name and the Major general Rank on it and no mysteries. You should thank Omsk citizens such as professor Phialkhov, the writer Utev, the regional ethnographer Petrov and some others for coming to Selenginsk in search of Buchholz tomb. But still it remained a mystery. The fortress was on the right bank of the rapid Selenga river, that took its toll. The constant bank undercutting and spring land-flood made Selenginsk citizens move to the opposite side of the river and found Novoselenginsk over there. The cemetery was deserted. It incurred Vandals attacks. Over the years most tombstones were under thick layer of sand and moss.
There were some indirect indications affirming Ivan Dmitrievich staying in Transbaikalia. Regional ethnographer Demin from Ulan-Ude shared the results of long-term investigations with “Omsk truth” newspaper, confirming it. As follows from the documents of Buryat ethnographer, Ivan Dmitrievich continued carry out his duty of Selenginsk fortress commandant, receiving instructions from the Senate even after official retirement on 2nd of March, 1740. The last instruction was dated June 15, 1740. Besides, Demin had not found any mention of case referral to the new foreman Jakobia, who could not be in Selenginsk until January or February 1741. The ice crossing through Baykal had been built during these months. Demin mentioned there had been one road linking Europe and Selenginsk, through Irkutsk and Buchholz travelling to the family estate would not go unnoticed. He had too high grade. There was one more fact approving it: all the travels of the new Selenginsk fortress commandant foreman Jakobia were recorded in detail. And there would not be any possibility to bury Buchholz body in Omsk or in his family estate, situated in European Russia, without any notes. The famous Buryat historian noted in 1987 the Buchholz tomb was on ancient cemetery of old Selenginsk. His article “Pushkin and Buryatia” said: “Sergey Glazunov is famous regional ethnographer, teacher and journalist has been sent to Staroselenginsk in 1958. Over there he ran into the Buchholz tombstone, the founder of Omsk fortress”. The searches should seem to be continued.
By Victor Gonoshilov.
The city in Om outflow.
Ivan Dmitrievich brought luck. Besides Omsk and Kyakhta he founded some more towns. Omsk is a city with the population of more than one million is the main landmark of Buchholz life journey. The city resembles somehow the character of its founder. There is the same tolerance and diligence in it. There are neither seas full of fish nor major fields. It so happed we did not receive any gifts from our nature, our prosperity is based on our hard work. Omsk founded in consequence of failed military campaign in future remained a powerful part of the country. It is the centre of Prairie area, the beginning point of all Asian excursions, and the capital of the White movement, the weapon smithy in the Great World War and the cold war. It is broadly considered, the Omsk location, namely the Om outflow, played great part in Russian History. This river was the South boundary of the Siberian khanate, the tributary of Ruthenia in XVI. In fact, the Siberian khanate was a part of Russia. After Buchholz foundation of the city all the territorial disputes between Ruthenia and wanderers caused local wars for more than one hundred years were terminated once and for all.